Refinishing Your Hardwood Floor

Depending on the type of stains and finish you choose, it can take up to a week for your floors to fully cure. During this time, it is essential to ensure that nothing in the room could potentially mark or damage your new finish.

Hardwood Floor Refinishing

Placing tarps over large pieces of furniture in the room is also helpful. Finally, it is a good idea to vacuum frequently to remove as much dust as possible. However, if you need some professional help, you can contact Hardwood Floor Refinishing Bergen County NJ.

When water stains, scratches and dull areas mar your once glossy hardwood floors, it may be time for an update. While sanding can be a very dusty and time-consuming job, it is essential for revitalizing wood floors. However, sanding isn’t the only option for renewing wood flooring. Screening is an alternative that focuses on smoothing the surface without taking it down to bare wood. This process is much less time consuming and less costly than full sanding. In addition, it can indefinitely postpone the need for refinishing.

To prepare the floor for sanding, it should be swept and vacuumed to remove any dirt or debris. It is also important to examine the floor for protruding nails, which should be pounded in using a nail set or hammer. The floor should then be sanded with a drum or edge sander fitted with 60-, 80- and 100-grit sanding disks.

During the sanding process, it’s a good idea to wear a face mask or HEPA-level N95 respirator, as fine sawdust can cause sinus problems. A dust mask will also help reduce the amount of sanding debris generated. Once the sanding is complete, the floor will need to be vaccuumed again and cleaned thoroughly. Depending on the type of finish used, it may take up to 24 hours for the floor to dry completely.

After sweeping and vacuuming, the floor can be buffed with a pole buffing machine or by hand with a terry cloth to get rid of any marks or streaks left from the sanding process. It is important to use a low or no-VOC polyurethane when buffing, as these finishes contain fewer VOCs and are better for the environment.

When refinishing, it is important to choose a high-quality product that will last for decades and stand up to daily wear and tear. It is also important to follow all instructions carefully to ensure a successful result. Attempting to cut corners will only lead to a lower-quality finish that is more likely to flake and peel. To minimize the chance of mistakes, it’s often best to have a professional do the work.

Staining

A solid hardwood floor can be refinished four to six times in its lifetime. Refinishing your floor allows you to change the color and give it a new look that is different from your previous floors. This is a chance to add personality and style to your home. You can choose a color that reflects your personality or one that matches the décor of your room.

Before you start staining, let your floors dry completely. The time it takes for a stain to cure will depend on the type of wood and the stain you use. You may need to reapply stain once or twice during the drying process to get the desired color. It’s important to read the stain container for directions and to follow them closely.

Once your floor is stained, it’s a good idea to seal it again. This helps protect the wood from spills and other accidents that could damage it. It will also make the finish smoother. If your first sealant looks cloudy or streaky, sand and reapply it.

You can buy oil-based or water-based polyurethane sealers. The water-based options are typically easier to clean up than the oil-based ones.

Before you begin the staining process, vacuum your floor to remove dust and other debris that has accumulated during the sanding process. If you can, use a powerful shop vac with a brush attachment. Otherwise, a large backpack vac like the ProTeam MegaVac is a good option. You should also use tack cloths or rags dampened with mineral spirits to wipe down the surface. This is a tedious job, but it’s essential to avoid dust particles that might interfere with the appearance or adhesion of the stain.

Starting in an inconspicuous corner, pour, brush or roll on the liquid stain, following the direction of the grain. Work in small sections to prevent lap marks and apply multiple coats as directed by the manufacturer.

As you’re working, keep your family and pets out of the area to avoid inhaling the strong odors caused by the chemical fumes from the stains and varnish. You’ll want to wait a minimum of 24 hours before moving your furniture back into place.

Finishing

If you have decided to refinish your hardwood floors, there are several options available to you. Hiring a professional can be expensive and time consuming, so many homeowners opt to do-it-yourself (DIY). However, this is a project of moderate difficulty and requires a lot of equipment and supplies.

Before refinishing, you should carefully examine your wood flooring to determine its condition. Look for dents, scratches, and gouges, as well as any areas that are warping or separating. If you find any of these issues, it is best to refinish your floor rather than repair them. Refinishing will restore the appearance of your floor and extend its life, while repairs may not last as long.

To refinish your wood floor, you will need to clear the room and remove all furniture. You will also need to seal off doorways and electrical sockets with plastic sheeting to keep sanding dust from spreading. Once the room is cleared, you will need to sand the floor with an orbital sander. This will remove the old finish and expose bare boards.

You can then stain your hardwood floor with a new color. A dark stain will give your home a rich, formal feel, while a lighter stain can create a warm and inviting space. Once the stain is dry, you can apply a coat of polyurethane for protection. There are water-based and oil-based versions of polyurethane, so you should decide which one is right for your home.

The most common type of hardwood flooring is solid wood, which consists of planks of real wood that are joined together. This type of flooring is durable and can be refinished up to 12 times in its lifetime. However, it is not suitable for humid climates and can be damaged by moisture. Engineered wood is a more versatile option that can be made from different types of real wood, including oak, maple, and mahogany. It can be used in any room of the house and is suitable for any environment. It is also possible to refinish engineered wood, though this will not extend the floor’s lifespan as much as a solid-wood floor.

Sealing

The final step in refinishing hardwood floors is to apply a protective sealant. This ensures that the wood will hold up against everyday wear and tear and minimizes the need for future refinishing. Homeowners can apply the sealant themselves or have it done professionally. If homeowners decide to do it themselves, they will need to rent specialized equipment like a drum sander and have enough time to work through the entire floor. A mistake during this process could damage the floor and result in a costly repair or replacement.

Before applying any type of sealant to a hardwood floor, it must be completely sanded. This is an extremely time-consuming and labor intensive step, and it must be completed thoroughly to produce a smooth surface for the application of the sealant. Once the sanding process is complete, the floor must be cleaned thoroughly. This is an important step that helps to remove any dirt, dust, or grit left behind. It is also necessary to clean the sanded boards to prepare them for the application of the sealant.

After cleaning, the floor should be lightly sanded again with a fine grade of sandpaper, usually #220. This helps to ensure that the second coat of sealant will adhere properly to the floor. Once the sanding is complete, the floor should be thoroughly vacuumed and wiped down with a tack cloth to remove any remaining debris.

There are several different types of sealants that can be used on hardwood floors, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Shellac, for example, is a popular option that provides a natural appearance, but it doesn’t hold up to foot traffic very well and must be buffed in regularly. Polyurethane is another common choice and offers a wide range of finishes, from matte to glossy. Water-based polyurethane is becoming more popular than oil-based options because it dries quicker and produces fewer volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Once the first coat of sealant has been applied, it will need to dry for at least eight hours. Homeowners should be sure to wear personal protection during this process, as most of these products will emit harmful vapors that can be detrimental to health.

Advantages of Rubbish Removal

Perth Rubbish Removal is crucial to maintaining a clean and tidy living or working space. Several options are available for removing rubbish, including skip bins and junk removal specialists.

A good way to eliminate waste is by separating it into different piles. You can make a pile for storage, a pile for donations, and a pile for rubbish.

Trash removal is a vital municipal service that costs a lot of money. The price tag for waste disposal is nearly twice as high as in other cities. The city’s public trash collection agency, DSNY, spends over $2.3 billion annually to collect and dispose of New York’s garbage. This figure is unsurprising, considering the vast quantity of waste produced in the city each year. The average household throws away more than 60 pounds of trash a week.

Most municipal waste management programs charge a monthly fee for trash removal. However, the cost varies depending on where you live and the size of your trash container. Additionally, you may have to pay extra charges for special services such as removing unwanted appliances or hazardous waste. Here are some tips to help you reduce your garbage bill and save money on rubbish removal services.

Limiting trash production is one of the most effective ways to lower your garbage bills. The best way to do this is to use a smaller trash container, saving you gas and storage space. In addition, some cities, such as San Francisco, offer incentives to reduce trash production, which varies prices by household income and limits bin sizes to 96 gallons.

Other methods of reducing garbage production include recycling, composting, and incineration. In addition, if you have the space, you can also hire rubbish removal companies to do the job for you. These companies are equipped with the tools and skills to remove waste from your property safely and quickly.

Moreover, they have the expertise to handle different types of waste and rubbish, including hazardous materials, electronic waste, and construction debris. They also adhere to the proper disposal techniques that prevent pollution and protect the environment. Hiring a rubbish removal company is worth the investment because it will help you reduce stress levels and save money in the long run.

One of the biggest advantages of hiring rubbish removal professionals is convenience. They will come to your house or office and collect all your waste for you. They will take it to the local dump and dispose of it properly. In addition, they will have a large truck that can fit a lot of waste, making it a more efficient option than taking multiple trips to the curb.

Another advantage of rubbish removal is saving you time and energy. You don’t have to worry about collecting and transporting your waste so that you can focus on other important tasks. In addition, hiring a rubbish removal company can reduce stress levels and help you feel more relaxed.

Hiring a rubbish removal company can be more expensive than renting a skip bin, but it may be worth it in the long run. Ultimately, it all comes down to your personal preferences and budget. If you’re unsure what to choose, consider the following questions:

Waste disposal has a major impact on the environment and our health. When rubbish is not disposed of properly, it can damage the earth’s ecosystem, contaminate water sources, and release harmful chemicals. This is especially problematic for animals and people who rely on clean drinking water and air.

The most obvious environmental implication of improper rubbish removal is pollution. Landfills that are overflowing with junk produce large amounts of methane, which is a powerful greenhouse gas and contributes to climate change. This also leads to ground and soil pollution, which can contaminate water sources and cause respiratory problems. In addition, landfill leachate can contaminate freshwater sources and cause health issues for humans and wildlife.

Another important environmental impact of improper rubbish removal is habitat destruction. Illegal dumping and poorly managed landfills can destroy natural habitats, leading to biodiversity loss. In addition, the toxins from unprocessed garbage can affect animal and human health by releasing disease-causing bacteria into the air.

Irregular rubbish removal can also contribute to water and air pollution. The toxins from unprocessed rubbish can seep into water bodies and affect their quality, and the gases released during incineration can cause respiratory diseases. These harmful toxins can also spread to nearby vegetation and contaminate the food chain.

In addition to these harmful effects, improper rubbish removal can lead to health problems for sanitation workers. Scavengers who pick through discarded junk can be exposed to dangerous bacteria and other contaminants, and the workers in trash-burning plants face similar risks. The waste from discarded junk can also harm the earth’s ozone layer, which is essential for the survival of many plant and animal species. Therefore, it is vital to reduce the amount of junk created and recycle as much as possible. This will help to save the planet and make it a better place for everyone. A great way to do this is by hiring a rubbish removal service that uses environmentally friendly methods.

It may seem like a trivial task, but taking out the trash can be dangerous. Whether you are an employee in a waste management company or a citizen picking up trash from your street, there are several safety hazards. From wearing the proper clothing to avoiding tripping, several tips can help you stay safe during rubbish removal. These include wearing shoes with good traction and using caution when lifting heavy items. Additionally, you should always wear gloves and use a can opener to prevent injuries.

In addition to the safety risks associated with rubbish removal, there are also environmental hazards. Chemicals and hazardous materials in rubbish can cause damage to the environment if not disposed of properly. This is why it is important to know and abide by your local regulations. Some of these chemicals are toxic and can cause health problems if ingested. In addition, they can also harm the environment by leaching into the ground or water. If you dispose of these chemicals, you should place them in a special bin designed for such wastes.

Likewise, you should avoid overfilling your bin. This can attract flies, rats, and cockroaches, spreading bacteria and germs. In addition, overflowing bins can break under the weight of the garbage. Therefore, planning your rubbish removal schedule and discussing it with the rubbish handlers in advance is important.

A professional rubbish removal service will take care of all your unwanted waste and dispose of it safely. They will recycle as much as possible and remove any items that cannot be recycled. However, it is important to remember that some types of waste are not recyclable and must be disposed of in a landfill. These include building materials, concrete, radioactive or dangerous substances, paints and dyes, tires, and car parts.

In addition to reducing the amount of trash in landfills, rubbish removal companies can save you money by helping you keep your waste costs down. In addition to recycling, these companies can also reduce the need for new containers by reducing the size of your bins. Additionally, they can provide you with information about the best way to dispose of different types of rubbish.

How to Dispose of a Mattress

There are several ways to dispose of your old mattress, including local recycling centers. These may accept a used mattress for free or for a minimal fee. They can also schedule bulk trash pickup for large items like mattresses.

You can also sell your used mattress on Craigslist or local Facebook Marketplace. If you are handy enough, you can even dismantle the mattress for its parts, which can be sold to scrap metal yards. For more information, just visit the Mattress Collection Armadale to proceed.

While many mattresses end up in landfills, up to 90% can be recycled. This reduces the need for raw materials to be extracted from the environment, reduces waste and pollution, and helps create jobs.

Recycling centers and local non-profits will often take old mattresses. Some may require you to dismantle them, but many have facilities to handle the process. If you prefer to do it yourself, it is a good idea to sort through the mattress and separate the components, such as metal springs, foam padding, and wood frames. This will make the entire process much easier and less time-consuming. You can then recycle each piece separately or use it for other projects such as gardening, arts and crafts, pet beds, etc.

Another option is to use a junk removal service that will handle the whole process for you. This will ensure that all components are disposed of properly and comply with local laws. Be sure to ask if they offer curbside pickup or have a specific schedule for collecting bulk items like mattresses.

Many communities have trash collection services to pick up your old mattresses for a small fee. Check online for your local waste management department to see if they have any information on this. In some areas, bulk items are picked up every week, while others have monthly or bi-weekly heavy trash days for large items like mattresses.

You can also find a local collective or non-profit to take your mattress and donate it to charity. This is a great way to help out in your community and get rid of your old bed simultaneously. This method can be more difficult to find, as these groups usually have strict rules about accepting donated mattresses for regulatory and storage space reasons.

You can also try to give away your old mattress through a local classifieds site such as Craigslist or a local newspaper’s classified section. Be sure to provide the location of the mattress, as this will help potential buyers find it more easily.

Mattress donation is an excellent way to reduce waste while helping needy people. Many charities and thrift stores accept used mattresses. However, you should know that some organizations will only take the mattress if it is clean and in good condition. They will not get mattresses that are stained, ripped, or infested with bed bugs. If you cannot donate your old mattress, you can still help by donating items such as bedding, linens, or funds.

Furniture banks like the National Furniture Bank Association accept donations of gently-used mattresses. These facilities partner with local charities to ensure donated furniture reaches needy families. They also offer free pickup for donors within a certain radius of the store. To donate, you can call your local furniture bank or visit their website to schedule a pickup.

Thrift shops are another great option for donating your old mattress. These charities sell used clothing, furniture, and other household items at low prices to support local families in need. Some thrift shops also provide tax-deductible donations for those who qualify. You can check out the home donation value guide for more information on how much you can deduct from your old mattress.

Some homeless shelters also accept mattress donations. To ensure your mattress is donated in the best possible condition, contact a shelter directly before donating it. You can find the contact details for homeless shelters in your area by searching online or getting a charity such as United Way.

If your mattress is too worn to donate, you can still have it recycled. This process breaks down the mattress into different components and reuses them in new products. For example, foam materials can be repurposed into carpet padding, and metal springs can be melted down and turned into new metal products. This recycling method reduces environmental harm and contributes to a sustainable economy.

If you have a large mattress that cannot be donated, you can use a junk removal company to dispose of it responsibly. Junk removal companies are experts at removing all types of junk, including mattresses. They will recycle your mattress and ensure that it is not disposed of in a landfill, where it can cause harm to the environment.

If you can’t find a place that accepts your old mattress or can’t afford to donate it, trash pickup may be your only option. This method is not the most eco-friendly, but it can help you dispose of your mattress quickly and easily. Before placing it for garbage collection, wrap it tightly in plastic sheeting or a mattress bag, and remove the box spring. This helps prevent the spread of pests and ensures the mattress stays dry during disposal. Additionally, you should check with your local waste management company before placing your mattress out for disposal. Many cities and towns have specific rules regarding the disposal of bulky items, so it is important to follow these guidelines.

If your city does allow bulky waste pickup, it is often best to contact the Department of Sanitation (DSNY) ahead of time to arrange a pickup date. They will provide the necessary information, including the proper packaging and collection schedules. The DSNY also provides a special website and helpline for residents who need assistance disposing of large items like mattresses.

Once you’ve scheduled your appointment, place the wrapped mattress at the curb the night before your trash-only collection day. Set it out carefully to avoid blocking sidewalks or impeding traffic. DSNY will send a specialized truck to collect your items, and the mattress will be safely disposed of.

Due to a bed bug outbreak, all mattresses and box springs must be sealed in a plastic bag before being placed out for garbage collection. Failure to do so will result in a fine. Those unable to close their mattress or box spring in a bag can call the Wake County landfill to have it shredded for an additional fee. This process will reduce the amount of space that the item takes up in a landfill and increase its ability to be recycled into new materials. If you do decide to go this route, be sure to choose a reputable shredding company.

If you don’t have much extra time to get rid of your mattress and aren’t interested in donating or selling it, the easiest way to get rid of it is by hiring a junk removal service. These services are on-demand, specializing in hauling away junk and large items. They’ll typically come to your home or business on trash day and remove the bulky items for you.

Many of these companies go the extra mile to recycle and donate the items they pick up so you can feel good about using them. However, some are more traditional and take everything to a landfill. Make sure to find a company that goes the extra mile so that you can help prevent landfill overflows, reduce the amount of plastics that reach our oceans, and slow down global warming.

When you use a junk removal company, they’ll typically transport your junk to a processing center, where the team will sort through it and pull out any items that can be recycled or donated. These items will then be taken to the appropriate places. This process helps reduce waste, saves on energy costs, and saves landfill space.

Aside from reducing waste, junk removal can also benefit the community. By reducing clutter, junk removal can allow communities to focus on their own needs and improve the quality of life for residents. It can also save money and resources for businesses by allowing them to rent storage spaces more easily.

Another way that junk removal can benefit the community is by providing jobs. For example, if you’re renovating your home or business, you might need the help of a junk removal company to dispose of construction debris quickly and efficiently. These professionals can save you time and money, so they’re worth the investment. In addition, they can help you focus on your renovation project and complete it faster. This means more time to enjoy your new space, and it can also boost productivity. So, if you’re ready to declutter and give your home or office a fresh start, consider hiring a junk removal company.

How To Take Care Of Your Home Patio

Home Patio

Patios are exposed to the elements, so they can easily suffer from mold and mildew. They can also become the target of pests that look for food, shelter and nesting areas.

Look for patches of what looks like fuzz clinging to cushions, pillows and the underside of your furniture’s umbrella. Discolored mold and mildew should be removed immediately to prevent it from spreading.

Clean It Regularly

Just like other areas of your home, patios need regular cleaning to maintain their beauty and function. Sweeping and mopping will remove the dirt from daily foot traffic and prevent stains and discoloration. It will also eliminate potential tripping hazards and make your furniture more comfortable to sit in.

You can also use a pressure washer to give your patio a thorough cleaning. However, be sure to follow the directions for your equipment and keep it a few inches away from the surface so you don’t damage the paving material or the paint on your furniture. If you want to go a step further, try applying a cleaner designed specifically for patios, such as Simple Green Patio Cleaner. This will remove the deep-seated dirt and prepare the surface for future treatments, such as sealants.

The best time to clean your patio is in the spring before you start using it regularly, and again before putting it away for the winter. During this time, you’ll have more energy and motivation to tackle the project, and you’ll be able to enjoy your newly-clean patio while you’re working on it.

It’s recommended that you sweep the patio at least once a week and mop it at least twice per month with warm soapy water. There are also products that are specially made for patios, but you should always check the label to make sure they’re compatible with your paving material. Also, always test a new solution on a small, hidden area of the patio before using it.

Vinegar can help lift organic stains, such as those from food splatter and pet urine. Mix a 50:50 solution of vinegar and water, apply it to the paved surfaces, and leave it to soak for a few minutes before using a stiff brush to scrub any visible stains. Rinse with clean water, and allow to dry completely before you put any furniture back on the patio.

You can also make the process more convenient by investing in a set of foldable chairs and a table that can be easily stowed when not in use. You can also take the time to wrap any fabric cushions and pillows in plastic bags or old blankets for protection during storage. Be sure to also store any glass or metal items in a safe, dry place.

Seal It

Whether your patio is made from wood, brick, concrete or some other material, it needs to be protected from the elements. While most outdoor furnishings are tough enough to withstand the rain, sleet and snow, prolonged exposure to sunlight and other weather conditions can cause them to degrade over time. Regular cleaning and a good sealant can help prolong the life of your furniture and keep it looking good.

Before you apply a patio sealant, make sure to read the manufacturer’s care guidelines carefully. Many of these will specify which cleaners and cleaning methods to use, as well as which ones to avoid. Using the wrong cleaners or applying them incorrectly can damage your furniture and void any existing warranties.

Most manufacturers recommend a water-based acrylic sealer for patios, as it is durable, low cost and non-yellowing. It is also breathable, allowing moisture vapor to escape. If you prefer a less shiny look, there are also penetrating sealers that will give the same level of protection.

It’s important to power wash your patio before you apply a new coat of sealer, as this will remove any dirt and grime that may have settled in the cracks of your patio bricks. You should also sweep the area thoroughly to make sure you get rid of any loose or broken pieces. It’s also a good idea to sweep up any sand that has accumulated between the individual patio bricks and add more if necessary.

If your patio has a wide gap between it and your house, a rubber strip is an inexpensive solution that can last up to 12 years. Caulking is another option, but it’s best combined with a rubber sealant to prevent moisture absorption.

Keeping your patio in good condition can take some effort, but the results are worth it. If you follow these simple tips, your patio can look new and beautiful for years to come.

If you don’t have the time or energy to maintain your own patio, hire a professional. They will clean and seal the patio, as well as provide other services such as landscaping, gardening and pool maintenance.

Inspect It After Heavy Weather

When heavy gusts of wind or severe rain hit, they can damage your patio or ruin furniture. To prevent this from happening, move furniture into a protected area before storms hit. A garage or shed is a good option. If you cannot take your furniture inside, wrap cushions and pillows in plastic sacks or in old blankets to protect them from moisture.

After a storm hits, you should also inspect your patio for damage. In addition to checking the ledger (a piece of framing that attaches the deck to your home), you should probe for signs of rot around the posts, railings, and joists. If you see rot, make repairs as soon as possible to keep the structure safe for use.

It is also a good idea to examine the area for trip hazards. These include cracks wider than a quarter inch and areas where the sidewalk slopes upward more than half an inch. It is also important to check for signs of drainage problems, such as standing water. These can be corrected by making sure there is a downspout nearby, and that the gutter system is functioning correctly.

Another common problem with outdoor furnishings is mildew and mold. These can be hard to spot, especially when the growth is a sickly shade of white, gray, black or brown. If you spot these spores, wash your furniture with warm soapy water or a commercial solution that is compatible with the material of your patio.

As with dirt and grime, mold and mildew are easier to remove if they are caught early, before they have a chance to spread. You can spray fungicide or rub the surface with ammonia mixture or a mild bleach solution to kill it and keep it from returning.

Finally, before the weather turns cold, it is a good idea to inspect your patio one last time. This is a great time to look for damage to the ledger, as well as check for the presence of critters looking for shelter. A general maintenance plan that includes keeping food and garbage away from the patio can help deter these pests, as will ensuring that plants are kept trimmed and healthy.

Inspect It During the Winter

The cooler weather of fall is a good time to think about winterizing your patio. Keeping it in good condition can help protect your furniture, keep pests away and allow for smooth operation once the warmer weather returns.

To begin with, remove any cushions or fabric from your furniture and give them a thorough cleaning before storing or covering them. Depending on the material, this might mean brushing and vacuuming or a washing with mild soap and water. Be sure to allow the furniture and cushions to dry completely before putting them away or covering them. Moisture left on furniture can lead to mold or mildew which will be difficult to remove once cold weather sets in.

If you have a deck, inspect it for signs of rot, particularly around posts and railings. The ledger is a critical piece of framing that attaches the deck to your house, so be sure to check it thoroughly. If you notice any cracks or damage, repair them as soon as possible.

Sweep the patio of leaves, sticks and other debris regularly to keep it free from damage. A stiff bristle brush or outdoor broom can be used to ensure a thorough cleaning. If you have a wood or composite deck, it may be wise to reseal it now as well.

Consider changing your seating arrangement for the winter. For example, if you have an open patio area with a table and chairs, you might want to add a comfortable bench or loveseat for additional seating during the colder months. In addition, it’s a good idea to add some extra lighting to your patio for the winter. For instance, hanging some string lights can help create a cozy atmosphere and add a touch of elegance to your patio.

Taking care of your home patio will not only make it look nicer but also increase its lifespan and help reduce your energy bills. By following these simple tips, you can enjoy your patio throughout the winter and have it ready to go when the warm season arrives again.